Thou Satan, Black Sun !!
Hadith unbound by God´s Will !!
In Christian mythology, "Satan"
is the main name (or "title") given to the Devil
. Also known as "Lucifer, Son of the Dawn" (from the latin Lux Ferre
, which is in turn St. Jerome´s translation of the hebrew term Helel Ben-Saschar
, preserved in the Latin Vulgata
). The term "Satan" itself comes from the hebrew verb "Shaitan"
, which means "to oppose" or "to accuse".
Traditionally described as a beautiful, Fallen Archangel, Satan
is the mythological creature blamed by Christians as the "one who introduced sin and suffering in the world" (St. Augustine of Hippo, De Civitate Dei
), in their atempt of denying Man´s role and responsability in the prevalence of MORAL EVIL
in our world. Specially during the Middle Ages, some Jewish sects blamed this FICTIONAL
creature as well for the same cause (although Jewish tradition tends to identify him with the name Samael
The concept of a "Devil" is not indigenous to Jewish religious thought. It was brought up from Zoroastrianism
, during the Persian rule of the jewish nation (during the V century B.C.E.). which began under the kingdom of Cyrus the Great
. The Zoroastrian DUALIST
worldview (two Gods in conflict: a "Good God" called Ahura-Mazda
V.S. an "Evil God" identified as Angra-Manyu
, or Ahriman
) was the basic thesis from which post-exilic jews developed the idea of a "Devil", an evil entity separated from Yahweh, as the cause of pain and suffering in the world. In stark contrast, ancient jewish thought always considered Yahweh
as the ultimate and unique source of both "good" and "evil". He sent each one of these according to His people´s "correct" or "wrong" behaviour.
The jewish concept of a "Devil" took around three centuries to fully develop. The first religious texts where such a character explicitely appears are the many books that form the Intertestamental Literature
: the broad set of religious texts produced after the compilation of the Torah, but before the writting of the "New Testament". They include books such as the Life of Adam and Eve
(a.k.a. Apocalypse of Moses
), the Book of Jubilees
, the Testament of Amram
, the Ascension of Isaiah
, and the Book of Enoch
The Devil´s original name was, in fact, BELIAL
, a hebrew term which means "Worthless" or "Without Value" (alternative meanings: "Without Yoke", "Not to Rise" and "Lawless One"). He was conceived as the "Prince of Demons", who leads humanity astray through three main vices: LUST
(greed), as attested by the Damascus Document
. These three "vices" were seen as "Belial´s three nests in the hearts of Men".
The Devil still retains this old name (Belial) in later religious texts, such as those of Qumran. In the War Scroll
(a.k.a. War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness
/ Papyrus 1QM
), Satan/Belial is said to be the Chief of the Fallen Angels, who will lead his unholy army against Israel and God´s angels in the "Final War" of the Judgement Day, shortly before the arrival of the Messiah, and God´s ultimate thriumph against Rome
, and the rest of the nations seen as enemies by Jewish people. During Jesus´ life time, the Essenes
were specially fearful of Belial´s imminent arrival.
Belial/Satan was originally conceived as a twisted, demonic creature, whose origins were mostly shrouded in mystery, even for the Jewish people. But after the publication of the Book of Enoch
(1 Enoch), this changed dramatically, as this text (seen as "Sacred" and "Canonical" Scripture by many Jewish teachers, and even by many Church Fathers, such as Tertulian
and Irenaeus of Lyon
) stated that the origin of demons must be seen as the result of the "Fall" of Divine Beings (a.k.a. "Angels"), who were consumed by their lust for mortal women (the legend of the Watchers
Curious data. Centuries before the arrival of Christianity, Jews developed an early (and very different) account of Satan´s fall, that ended up being preserved in Islam
´s sacred text (the Quran): Satan fell of Grace out of pride, since he and his fellow Angels refused to bow down to Adam, the First Man, who was made by God in his very image. This idea appeared first in the book known as the Life of Adam and Eve
, previously mentioned, around the II century B.C.E.